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Benchmarks and Standards
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Social Studies
Important Links for Teachers

          The 2005 Moonrise at the Newark Earthworks represents a singular opportunity for teachers at all grade levels and in all subject areas.  The event encompasses interdisciplinary, problem-oriented inquiry in many areas of both Science and Social Studies, including, but not limited to, anthropology (especially archaeology), astronomy, geography, history, and mathematics (especially geometry).

          The following Benchmarks and Indicators for Ohio’s Social Studies and Science Academic Content Standards could be addressed in a curriculum based on the Newark Earthworks and the 2005 Moonrise event

(see http://www.ode.state.oh.us/academic_content_standards/ ):



 Students use materials drawn from the diversity of human experience to analyze and interpret significant events, patterns and themes in the history of Ohio, the United States and the world.


B.  Place events in correct order on a time line.

C.  Compare daily life in the past

and present demonstrating an understanding that while basic human needs remain       the same, they are met in different ways in different times and places.

Grades 3-5:

A. Construct time lines to demonstrate an understanding of units of time and chronological order.

B. Describe the cultural patterns that are evident in North America today as a result of exploration, colonization and conflict.

Grades 6-8:

A.  Interpret relationships between events shown on multiple-tier time lines.

B.  Describe the political and social characteristics of early        civilizations and their enduring impact on later civilizations.

D.  Describe the effects of interactions among civilizations during the 14th through the 18th centuries.

People in Societies

Students use knowledge of perspectives, practices and products of cultural, ethnic and social groups to analyze the impact of their commonality and diversity within local, national, regional and global settings


A.  Identify practices and products of diverse cultures.

B.      Identify ways that different cultures within the United States and the world have shaped our national heritage.

Grades 3-5

A. Compare practices and products of North American cultural groups.

B.  Explain the reasons people from various cultural groups came to North America and the consequences of their  interactions with each other.

Grades 6-8:

A.  Compare cultural practices, products and perspectives of past civilizations in order to understand commonality and diversity of cultures.

B.   Analyze examples of interactions between cultural groups and explain the factors that contribute to cooperation and conflict.

C.   Explain how contact between different cultures impacts the diffusion of belief systems, art, science, technology, language and forms of government.

Grades 9-10:

C. Analyze the ways that contacts between people of different cultures result in exchanges of cultural practices.


Students use knowledge of geographic locations, patterns and processes to show the interrelationship between the physical environment and human activity, and to explain the interactions that occur in an increasingly interdependent world.

Grades K-2:

A.  Identify the location of the state of Ohio, the United States, the continents and oceans on maps, globes and other geographic representations.

B.   Identify physical and human features of places.

C.   Explain how environmental

      processes influence human activity and ways humans depend on and adapt to the environment.

Grades 3-5:

A. Use map elements or coordinates to locate physical and human features of North America.

B. Identify the physical and human characteristics of places and regions in North America.

C.  Identify and explain ways people have affected the physical environment of North America and analyze the positive and negative consequences.

D. Analyze ways that transportation and communication relate to patterns of settlement and economic activity.

Grades 6-8:

A.  Identify on a map the location of major physical and human features of each continent.

B.   Define and identify regions using human and physical characteristics.

C.   Explain how the environment influences the way people live in different places and the consequences of modifying the environment.

D.  Explain reasons that people, products and ideas move from place to place and the effects of that movement on geographic patterns.

Grades 9-10:

A.  Analyze the cultural, physical, economic and political characteristics that define regions and describe reasons that regions change over time.

B.  Analyze geographic changes brought about by human activity using appropriate maps and other geographic data.

C.   Analyze the patterns and processes of  movement of people, products and ideas.

 Grades 11-12:

A.  Explain how the character and meaning of a place reflect a society's economics, politics, social values, ideology and culture.

B.     Evaluate the consequences of geographic and environmental changes resulting from governmental policies and human modifications to the physical environment.

Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities

Students use knowledge of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship in order to examine and evaluate civic ideals and to participate in community life and the American democratic system.

Grades K-2:

A.  Describe the results of cooperation in group settings and demonstrate the necessary skills.

Grades 3-5:

A. Explain how citizens take part in civic life in order to promote the common good.

Grades 6-8:

A.  Show the relationship between civic participation and attainment of civic and public goals.

Social Studies Skills and Methods

Students collect, organize, evaluate and synthesize information from multiple sources to draw logical conclusions. Students communicate this information using appropriate social studies terminology in oral, written or multimedia form and apply what they have learned to societal issues in simulated or real-world settings.

Grades K-2:

A.  Obtain information from oral, visual, print and electronic sources.

B.   Predict outcomes based on factual information.

C.  Communicate information orally, visually or in writing.

D.  Identify a problem and work in groups to solve it.

Grades 3-5:

A. Obtain information from a variety of primary and secondary sources using the component parts of the source.

B. Use a variety of sources to organize information and draw inferences.

C. Communicate social studies information using graphs or tables.

D. Use problem-solving skills to make decisions individually and in groups.

Grades 6-8:

A.  Analyze different perspectives on a topic obtained from a variety of sources.

B.   Organize historical information in text or graphic format and analyze the information in order to draw conclusions.

C.   Present a position and support it with evidence and citation of sources.

D.  Work effectively in a group

Grades 9-10:

A.  Evaluate the reliability and credibility of sources.

B.  Use data and evidence to support or refute a thesis.

Grades 11-12:

B.  Critique data and information to determine the adequacy of support for conclusions.

C.  Develop a research project that identifies the various perspectives on an issue and explain a resolution of that issue.

D.  Work in groups to analyze an issue and make decisions.


Earth and Space Sciences

Students demonstrate an understanding about how Earth systems and processes interact in the geosphere resulting in the habitability of Earth. This includes demonstrating an understanding of the composition of the universe, the solar system and Earth. In addition, it includes understanding the properties and the interconnected nature of Earth's systems, processes that shape Earth and Earth's history. Students also demonstrate an understanding of how the concepts and principles of energy, matter, motion and forces explain Earth systems, the solar system and the universe. Finally, they grasp an understanding of the historical perspectives, scientific approaches and emerging scientific issues associated with Earth and space sciences.

Grades K-2

A. Observe constant and changing patterns of objects in the day and night sky.

Grades 3-5:

A. Explain the characteristics, cycles and patterns involving Earth and its place in the solar system.

Grades 6-8:

A. Describe how the positions and motions of the objects in the universe cause predictable and cyclic events.

Grades 9-10:

F. Summarize the historical development of scientific theories and ideas, and describe emerging issues in the study of Earth and space sciences.

Grades 11-12:

A. Explain how technology can be used to gather evidence and increase our understanding of the universe.

C. Explain that humans are an integral part of the Earth's system and the choices humans make today impact natural systems in the future.

D. Summarize the historical development of scientific theories and ideas and describe emerging issues in the study of Earth and space sciences.

Science and Technology

Students recognize that science and technology are interconnected and that using technology involves assessment of the benefits, risks and costs. Students should build scientific and technological knowledge, as well as the skill required to design and construct devices. In addition, they should develop the processes to solve problems and understand that problems may be solved in several ways.

Grades K-2:

A. Explain why people, when building or making something, need to determine what it will be made of, how it will affect other people and the environment.

B. Explain that to construct something requires planning, communication, problem solving and tools.

Grades 3-5:

A. Describe how technology affects human life.

B. Describe and illustrate the design process.

Scientific Inquiry

Students develop scientific habits of mind as they use the processes of scientific inquiry to ask valid questions and to gather and analyze information. They understand how to develop hypotheses and make predictions. They are able to reflect on scientific practices as they develop plans of action to create and evaluate a variety of conclusions. Students are also able to demonstrate the ability to communicate their findings to others.

Grades K-2:

A. Ask a testable question.

B. Design and conduct a simple investigation to explore a question.

C. Gather and communicate information from careful observations and simple investigation through a variety of methods.

Grades 3-5:

A. Use appropriate instruments safely to observe, measure and collect data when conducting a scientific investigation.

B. Organize and evaluate observations, measurements and other data to formulate

inferences and conclusions.

C. Develop, design and safely conduct scientific investigations and communicate the results.

Grades 6-8:

A. Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the investigation, safety considerations and appropriate tools.

B. Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate  mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.

Grades 9-10:

A. Participate in and apply the processes of scientific investigation to create models and to design, conduct, evaluate and communicate the results of these investigations.

Grades 11-12:

A. Make appropriate choices when designing and participating in scientific investigations by using cognitive and manipulative skills when collecting data and formulating conclusions from the data.

Scientific Ways of Knowing

Students realize that the current body of scientific knowledge must be based on evidence, be predictive, logical, subject to modification and limited to the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding that scientific knowledge grows and advances as new evidence is discovered to support or modify existing theories, as well as to encourage the development of new theories. Students are able to reflect on ethical scientific practices and demonstrate an understanding of how the current body of scientific knowledge reflects the historical and cultural contributions of women and men who provide us with a more reliable and comprehensive understanding of the natural world.

Grades K-2:

A. Recognize that there are different ways to carry out scientific investigations.  Realize that investigations can be repeated under the same conditions with similar results and may have different explanations.

B. Recognize the importance of respect for all living things.

C. Recognize that diverse groups of people contribute to our understanding of the natural world.

Grades 3-5:

A. Distinguish between fact and opinion and explain how ideas and conclusions change as new knowledge is gained.

B. Describe different types of investigations and use results and data from investigations to provide the evidence to support explanations and conclusions.

C. Explain the importance of keeping records of observations and investigations that are

accurate and understandable.

D. Explain that men and women of diverse countries and cultures participate in careers in all fields of science.

Grades 6-8:

A. Use skills of scientific inquiry processes (e.g., hypothesis, record keeping, description and explanation).

B. Explain the importance of reproducibility and reduction of bias in scientific methods.

C. Give examples of how thinking scientifically is helpful in daily life.

Grades 9-10:

. Explain that scientific knowledge must be based on evidence, be predictive, logical, subject to modification and limited to the natural world.

B. Explain how scientific inquiry is guided by knowledge, observations, ideas and questions.

C. Describe the ethical practices and guidelines in which science operates.

D. Recognize that scientific literacy is part of being a knowledgeable citizen.

 Grades 11-12:

A. Explain how scientific evidence is used to develop and revise scientific predictions, ideas or theories.

B. Explain how ethical considerations shape scientific endeavors.

C. Explain how societal issues and considerations affect the progress of science and technology.

Important Note:

            Teachers who develop such curricula and who wish to share their efforts are encouraged to submit them to us for review and possible posting on this website.

            Information about school field trips to the Newark Earthworks is available at http://www.ohiohistoryteachers.org/03/03/c03.shtml.

Important Links for Teachers

Ohio Department of Education, Social Studies Academic Content Standards:


http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/ocd/arch/outreach/outreach.htmcreate bookmark
DIGGING AND DISCOVERY: Wisconsin Archaeology
http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/publications/oss/digging_and_discovery.aspcreate bookmark
"This 80-page book introduces elementary and middle school readers to Wisconsin peoples—ancient and
recent—and explains how examining the bits and pieces they left behind gives us clues as to the way
they lived. The book is divided into eight chapters, and begins with a description of Wisconsin's
first inhabitants: Paleo-Indians, Archaic Indians, and Woodland Indians. Subsequent chapters take the
reader from early Indian cultures to those of the Europeans and Euro-Americans, with discussion of
fur trading, lead mining, logging, and farming. The last chapter focuses on stewardship, showing that
we can all play a part in taking care of our past. 

Kid-friendly in format, with lively and charming original illustrations of badgers-as-archaeologists,
the book is packed with drawings, photographs, and informational side bars that expand on concepts
introduced in the text."

Lesson Plan to accompany Wisconsin Archaeology:
http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/teachers/lessons/elementary/digging.aspcreate bookmark
Also, see Wisconsin Archaeology: Teacher's Guide and Student Materials.  State Historical Society of
Wisconsin, Office of School Services.

Archaeology in the Classroom: Guidelines for the Evaluation of Archaeology Education Materials:


Archaeology and Public Education


            Archaeology and Public Education is the newsletter of the SAA Public Education       Committee.  It is posted four times a year: Spring (Mar 1), Summer (June 1), Fall           (Sept 1), and Winter (Dec 1).

Voyageur Media Group’s Ohio Archaeology Project (including an educational website):  http://www.voyageurmedia.org/ohioarchaeology.htm

Ohio Historical Society programming geared to Content Standards:


Field Trips from the Ohio Historical Society: http://www.ohiohistoryteachers.org/03/index.shtml.

Other Links:




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